Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: research by Robert Moffitt

By Robert Moffitt

The layout of welfare courses in an period of reform and devolution to the states needs to keep in mind the most likely results of courses on demographic habit. such a lot learn on welfare long ago has tested exertions industry concerns, even supposing there have additionally been a few very important reviews of the consequences of the help to households with based teenagers software on out-of-wedlock childbearing. less info is out there on different matters both principal to the talk, together with results on abortion judgements, marriage and divorce, intrafamily family, family formation, and residing preparations. This quantity of papers includes experiences and syntheses of current facts referring to the demographic affects of welfare and ideas for a way to judge new state-level reforms.

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When a pregnancy occurs, whether it is carried to term is strongly influenced by marital status. 2 among unmarried women (Figure 2-14). Abortion ratios among unmarried women increased sharply in the first few years following the 1973 Supreme Court decision, from 57 per 100 in 1973 to 66 per 100 in 1977. But since 1979, the ratio has traced a steady decline, which has accelerated in recent years. 6 5The missing element, spontaneous fetal loss, occurs in about 15 percent of all pregnancies. 6During 19801987, declines in the abortion ratio occurred among white women of all ages, and among black women at ages 20 and older.

She then provides a detailed description of the PRWORA legislation, calling it "both less radical and more radical" than often claimed. The most radical provisions are those converting the AFDC program to a block grant, those requiring time limits on receipt of benefits in the new TANF program, and the new work requirement mandates. Blank concludes by emphasizing that the PRWORA legislation merely pushed further trends that had already been occurring for several years, including an increasing emphasis on behavioral requirements as a condition of program eligibility (with particular emphasis on work behavior), an increasing trend toward decentralization in the design of programs, and a trend toward reductions in expenditures and entitlements to welfare.

Figure 2-11, from a national survey of sexual behavior conducted by University of Chicago researchers, shows that early initiation into sexual experience has become increasingly likely for both men and Page 21 Figure 2-11 Percentage of adults who have had sexual intercourse by age 18, by year of birth. SOURCE: Laumann et al. (1994). , 1994). This earlier age at sexual debut, combined with later ages at marriage, has driven up the proportions who engage in sex premaritally (Department of Health and Human Services, 1995).

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