By Alexander Vasil'evich Khomchenko
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Additional info for Waveguide Spectroscopy of Thin Films
The energy associated with this wave tails out into the surroundings. If the gap is so small that ‘‘tails’’ of the guided and prism modes overlap, and the j angle is chosen such that k0 np ¼ h, then the energy of the prism mode is transmitted into the guided mode. 5). By varying the angle jm , one can excite several different modes using one prism. The process of energy transmitting into the guided mode is called optical tunneling by analogy with the tunneling effect in quantum mechanics. The length L, where the interaction between prism modes and waveguide takes place, is determined by the prism sizes.
10) the value of wb can be neglected in comparison to unity, then e ¼ n2 ﬃ 1 À l2 ð1 þ i=otÞ . 16) 16 WAVEGUIDE SPECTROSCOPY OF THIN FILMS Sometimes, this relationship is easier to write in the following way: e ¼ n2 ﬃ 1 À m0 e2 N e . 1=2 e2 N e nﬃÆ 1À . e. these magnitudes deﬁne whether the refractive index will be a complex, pure imaginary or real quantity. 18) where k is the absorption coefﬁcient (extinction coefﬁcient). The permittivity ðoÞ ¼ 0 ðoÞ þ i00 ðoÞ is also a complex function of the radiation frequency.
Dispersion Curves and the ‘‘Cut-Off’’ Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Input of Radiation into Waveguide by the Prism Coupler. . . . . . . . . 4. Excitation of Guided Light Modes and Measurement of Their Parameters . . . 5. Optical Losses in Waveguides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Dispersion Equations for the Imaginary Part of the Mode Propagation Constant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Measurement of Losses in Waveguides .