Visa Policy within the European Union Structure by Annalisa Meloni

By Annalisa Meloni

The booklet makes a speciality of the typical visa coverage as a case learn at the constitutional constitution of the eu Union. After introducing the character of visas, the ebook concentrates at the problems in forging a standard visa coverage at ecu point. Cooperation on visas has been characterised through a continuing reformulation of the framework for cooperation. The publication describes cooperation sooner than the Treaty on ecu Union followed at Maastricht, less than the Maastricht Treaty, and lower than the Treaty of Amsterdam. moreover, the booklet lines the fundamental features of the typical visa coverage – restrictiveness, flexibility and dependency on job less than the intergovernmental Pillars –, bearing on those to the character of the european and contemplating the operating of the ecu pillar constitution during this context. The operating of the pillar constitution is additionally thought of with regards to many of the Union’s efforts to construct an "area of freedom, safety and justice".

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After that, the United Kingdom concluded visa abolition agreements with a number of European States and by the 1960s visas were required only from nationals of Communist countries. See Roche (1969) pp. 112, 114 and 126; Bevan (1986) p. 164; Lee (1991) pp. 224-225. 190 Lee (1991) p. 228. ^^^ Morocco imposed visa requirements on nationals of Algeria in August 1995 following the killing of two Spanish tourists in Marrakech by members of an Algerian-Moroccan Islamic group based in France. '^^ Visa requirements are also used in an effort to keep out crime.

See Denza (1998) pp. 255-256. i^iSeeDenza(1998)p. 371. ^'^^ Immigration Rules, para. 320(13). ^^^ Immigration Rules, para. 47(3). ), OJ 2000 L 239/188. 2 Legal and political significance of passports and visas 35 Visas and the right to leave one's own country It is unclear whether a visa granted by a State has any impact on the exercise of the right to leave one's own country. In the Lopez Burgos Case (concerning a claim by an Uruguayan trade unionist that he had been kidnapped from Argentina by Uruguayan intelligence forces and then subjected to torture and unlawfril arrest) the Human Rights Committee established under the Optional Protocol of the ICCPR did not find that Uruguay violated Article 12 of the Covenant (on the right to leave one's own country) by not releasing Lopez Burgos after completion of his sentence.

I^"^ The United Kingdom's Immigration Rules lay down the categories of persons who need a visa to enter the United Kingdom as visitors or for transit. These comprise: (a) nationals of approximately 108 countries; (b) persons who hold passports or travel documents issued by the former Soviet Union or by the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; (c) stateless persons; (d) persons who hold non-national documents (such as refugee travel documents issued under the 1951 Geneva Convention).

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