By Prof. Edward L. Wolf, Manasa Medikonda(auth.)
A special creation for normal readers to the underlying strategies of nanotechnology, protecting a large spectrum starting from biology to quantum computing.
the cloth is gifted within the least difficult real way, together with a number of mathematical equations, yet now not mathematical derivations. It additionally outlines as easily as attainable the most important contributions to trendy know-how of physics-based nanophysical units, comparable to the atomic clock, worldwide positioning platforms, and magnetic resonance imaging. for this reason, readers may be able to determine a connection among nanotechnology and daily functions, in addition to with advances in info know-how in line with quickly pcs, the web, dense information garage, Google searches, and new thoughts for renewable strength harvesting.
additionally of curiosity to execs operating in legislations, finance, or educating who desire to comprehend nanotechnology in a huge context, and as basic analyzing for electric, chemical and laptop engineers, fabrics scientists, utilized physicists and mathematicians, in addition to for college kids of those disciplines.
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Extra resources for Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution
This quantity is taken as constant under scaling, so E is also constant. The energy stored in the charged capacitor U = Q2/2C = (1/2) εoE2At, where “At” is the volume of the capacitor. Thus, U scales as L3. If a capacitor is discharged through a resistor R, the time constant is τ = RC. Since the resistance R = ρᐉ/A, where ρ is the resistivity, ᐉ the length, and A the constant cross section of the device, we see that R scales as L−1. Thus, the resistive time constant RC is constant (scales 37 38 3 Systematics of Scaling Things Down: L = 1 m → 1 nm as L0).
The myosin head, the “hand of the monkey,” grasps one rung and then swings the other hand, the other side of the myosin dimer molecule, around to grasp the next rung. The steps and motion are 5–8 nm in length and the energy for this comes from changing chemical molecule ATP, which is “adenosine triphosphate,” and as the motion occurs, the triphosphate is changed to a double phosphate ADP giving up energy the energy goes into pulling the rope along the actin ladder. It is reported that the speed is 1–4 μm/s, so the step rate is 120–800 Hz.
We have summarized in Chapter 2 the essential improvement in computing that has come with making transistors smaller, which is called Moore’s law. The count of transistors per chip has gone from about 30 in 1965 to a billion today. The speed of operation of the devices has increased as a consequence of making them smaller. Devices now work at least at 2 GHz and some semiconductor counters operate up to 200 GHZ. Magnetic storage in the hard-disk drive has beneﬁted from miniaturization and also by the discovery, as a part of the miniaturization process, of a new magnetic ﬁeld sensor, the MTJ.