The Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Natural and by Anthony H. Knap, Mary-Scott Kaiser (auth.), Anthony H. Knap,

By Anthony H. Knap, Mary-Scott Kaiser (auth.), Anthony H. Knap, Mary-Scott Kaiser, Mary-Scott Kaiser (eds.)

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The efficiency of these transformations control the chemical and physical forms in which sUbstances exist in the atmosphere and, therefore, their susceptibilities to subsequent transport or removal. The efficiency of the individual transformation processes depends greatly on the species. Transformation rates depend on the chemical and physical properties of the substance and the ambient radiation and meteorological conditions. The rates of these chemical and physical transformations must be known as a function of ambient conditions encountered during transport if models are to be used to esti~ate large-scale fluxes.

And Mart (1983) have used this method in their studies of the Arctic atmosphere with its annual cycle of high winter pollution and clean summer conditions. In this approach all comparisons are to background levels, which are not necessarily natural levels. Enrichment factors (Rahn 1976) can be used to ascertain the expected contributions from crustal and marine sources. The enrichment factor relative to crustal rock is given by EFcrust(X) [X/Rc]air [X/Rc ] crust where X is the concentration of the trace element of interest and Rc the concentration of crustal reference element (generally Al or Si but occasionally Fe.

Clouds and precipitation associated with fronts are caused by the uplifting, and boundary layer air is lifted into the free troposphere by this process. This mechanism is most effective with the traveling midlatitude and tropical disturbances. Downward exchanges typically differ somewhat from upward ones because of different energetics of the transfers. Downward transfer by turbulence is effective on small scales as long as there is a vertical gradient in the property being transferred. For well-established convection, downdrafts usually occur over a much wider area and have lower velocities.

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