By Antonello Provenzale, Elisa Palazzi, Klaus Fraedrich
This quantity presents an summary of the fluid facets of the weather process, concentrating on simple features in addition to fresh study advancements. it is going to assemble contributions from diversified fields of the actual, mathematical and engineering sciences. the amount can be important to doctorate scholars, postdocs and researchers engaged on assorted points of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. it is going to even be of curiosity to researchers drawn to quantitatively realizing how fluid dynamics will be utilized to the weather procedure, and to weather scientists keen to achieve a deeper perception into the fluid mechanics underlying weather strategies.
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Additional info for The Fluid Dynamics of Climate
13a). Because of ocean adjustment, a nonzero divergence of the zonally integrated mass transport occurs and part of the equatorial heat content is moved to oﬀ-equatorial regions. This exchange causes the equatorial thermocline to ﬂatten and reduces the eastern temperature anomaly (again the thermocline feedback plays a role) and consequently the wind stress anomaly vanishes (Fig. 13b). Figure 13. Sketch of the diﬀerent stages of the recharge oscillator (Jin, 1997). Eventually a non-zero negative thermocline anomaly is generated, which allows cold water to get into the surface layer by the background upwelling.
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608, being Md and Mw the molar mass of dry air and of water, respectively. The sum of all the speciﬁc masses at play is equal to one by construction, qv + ql + qi + qd = 1 and eq. 2 can be written in the general form p = ρRT , where the gas constant depends on the water content through R = Rd (1 + qv − ql − qi ) (3) or, alternatively, as p = ρRd Tρ deﬁning the density temperature Tρ : Tρ = T (1 + qv − ql − qi ). 1 The adjective speciﬁc in this chapter indicates that the referenced quantity is normalized to the mass of the ﬂuid considered, either air or seawater A Theoretical Introduction to Atmospheric and Oceanic Convection 41 In absence of condensate, the density temperature corresponds to the virtual temperature, which is deﬁned as the temperature that dry air would have to have at pressure p in order to have the same density of moist air at temperature T and pressure p.