By Johan Galtung, Daisaku Ikeda
Johan Galtung is the world's most effective philosopher in peace experiences. This outstanding e-book is his reaction to the occasions of Sept. 11. it's a philosophical number of essays on terror, conflict, and peace which engages with the foremost concerns and hindrances we are facing in trying to create peace world wide. Focusing particularly at the Pacific quarter, he offers a grounded overview of the historical past of the nearby energy dynamics and current customers for peace.
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Additional info for Pax Pacifica: Terrorism, the Pacific Hemisphere, Globalization, and Peace Studies
More than 60 years ago, on December 8, 1941 (December 7 in Honolulu), the “Day of Infamy” as Americans call it, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. And more than 70 years ago the Japanese invaded Manchuria, the “Manchurian Incident” as the Japanese say. Today the Zero bombers in the tora! tora! tora! surgical operation that destroyed the US Pacific fleet1 would have been called “terrorists”—a generic term for all who think, speak and act badly of and towards the USA. The conclusion drawn is, in the words of Clausewitz, to hunt them down “by all necessary means”, crushing them by bringing justice to them, or them to justice.
Forget about Pearl Harbor, provoked or not. The war would have come anyhow. By now we have some explanations; some might even say Pearl Harbor is overdetermined, leaving no space for free will. But levels 2 and 3, phases and permanents, are not theories of war explaining Pearl Harbor, only more than sufficient to predict belligerence. 10 The explanation is rooted in something more solid, a powerful structure, a powerful culture, not in the chain of events. Where/when it shows up as war is circumstantial.
Making them pay reparations to countries they had attacked. Section (b), to stabilise the military victory over Japan: 6. p65 39 12/8/2004, 4:41 PM Chapter Three 7. depriving Japan of the state right to war through Article 9; 8. establishing bases in Japan; in Okinawa as symbol of US victory; 9. having the Emperor renounce any divine status; 10. introducing the sovereignty of the people through democracy. What is wrong with this approach is easily seen. First, the approach is asymmetric. Differences between Japan and the USA before the war were minimal, afterward they became maximal because Japan had lost the war.