By Philippe Knauth, Joop Schoonman
Nanostructured fabrics: chosen Synthesis equipment, houses and functions provides a number of very important fresh advances in synthesis tools for nanostructured fabrics and processing of nano-objects into macroscopic samples, akin to nanocrystalline ceramics. This booklet won't hide the full spectrum of attainable synthesis recommendations, which might be unlimited, however it provides in particular fascinating highlights within the domain names of study of the editors.
Subjects which are lined comprise the following:
*"chimie douce" techniques for instruction of a big number of nanostructured fabrics, together with metals, alloys, semiconductors and oxides;
*hydrothermal synthesis with water as solvent and response medium will be in particular tailored to nanostructured materials;
*"electrospraying" as a robust new direction for the practise of nanoparticles, particularly of oxides for electroceramics;
*nanoparticles processed into nanostructured ceramics, through the use of dynamic compaction techniques;
*applications of nanostructured materials.
This publication enhances the former quantity during this sequence (P. Knauth, J. Schoonman, eds., Nanocrystalline Metals and Oxides: chosen homes and purposes, Kluwer, Boston, 2002).
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Extra info for Nanostructured materials. Selected Synthesis Methods, Properties and Applications
Jung and Perrut10 give an actual overview on particle design using solvothermal methods. While most of these methods are referred to the treatment of organic materials and pharmaceutical products, the synthesis of inorganic materials has also been successfully performed using solvothermal fluid processes under dynamic flow conditions avoiding the stationary conditions described above. Among them the rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions (RESS) and the rapid thermal decomposition of precursors in solutions (RTDS) are the most relevant for the synthesis of nanocrystalline inorganic materials.
As an example we have produced NaCl nanoparticles from a solution (fig. ). It was shown that nanoparticles production by the method is feasible . Particles of sodium chloride of about 5nm diameter were produced using the EHDA principle. These particles were obtained by spraying a mixture of water, ethylene glycol and sodium chloride. For producing these ultra fine particles, the liquid flow had to be kept low and precisely controlled. The conductivity of the solution should be in the proper range.
It is also possible that additives are employed to modify the initial properties of pure hydrothermal water. g. g. pure, supercritical ) can be used for the dissolution–recrystallization process in order to widen the range of applicability of this synthesis method. Although they present some advantages, these solvents also have specific disadvantages concerning mainly their toxicity and corrosion problems for the autoclave materials. In addition, the simplicity and elegance of the original process is getting lost.