By Gianfranco Cerofolini
The evolution of the microelectronics is managed through the assumption of scaling. notwithstanding, the scaling of the gadget measurement under 10 nm is predicted to be most unlikely due to actual, technological and financial purposes. primary issues (based on Heisenberg's precept, Schrödinger equation, decoherence of quantum states, and Landauer restrict) recommend size scale of some nanometers is feasible. in this size scale, reconfigurable molecules (via redox or inner excitation strategies) appear to be appropriate for that. furthermore, crossbar with cross-point density within the variety 1010--1011 cm-² can already be ready with current tools, and such equipment allow the hyperlink of nanoscopic cross-points to lithographically available contacts. The constructions for molecular electronics take care of molecules. even if this topic is very interdisciplinary (covering quantum and statistical mechanics, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry of surfaces, and silicon know-how and devices), the booklet is meant to be self-contained supplying in appendices the mandatory aspect knowledge.
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Extra resources for Nanoscale devices: fabrication, functionalization, and accessibility from the macroscopic world
Also vacuum technology poses problems: Just to give an idea of the orders of magnitude, in currently achievable ultra-high vacua the residual pressure is of the order of 10 10 Torr (' 10 7 dyn cm 2 ). A volume of 1 cm3 kept at room temperature contains approximately 3 106 molecules. At this pressure each surface atom of the calorimeter undergoes a collision against gas-phase molecules each 104 s and the entire surface exposed to the atmosphere of the minimum-size calorimeter, of about 103 atoms, feels an event each 10 s.
For ΔE bit D 1 eV and WP max D 1 W cm 2 (a value that may assumed to be representative for silicon at 300 K) this would limit the maximum flop rate to 3 1018 cm 2 s 1 and determines a maximum parallelism of 8 104 . 4 Computation and Irreversibility 29 The upper limit of , instead, is not dramatically far from what has already been achieved; suggesting a road for the achievement of this limit within the current technology is one major aim of this book. 5 orders of magnitude in 10 years (from about 105 pJ in the early 1960s to about 1 pJ at the end of the 1970s ).
If the information carrier is charged, the state can be measured by embedding one region of the memory cell (for instance, the one coding state 1) in an electrometer and connecting it to the gate of an MOS transistor. 12 In this arrangement, the macroscopic output will be at ground potential (OUT D 0) when the electron is in region coding 0 (responsible for the transistor in OFF condition) or will have a positive voltage (OUT D 1) when the electron is in the region coding 1 (responsible for the transistor in ON condition).