Nanocrystalline apatite-based biomaterials by D. Eichert, C. Drouet, H. Sfihia, C. Rey, C. Combes

By D. Eichert, C. Drouet, H. Sfihia, C. Rey, C. Combes

The advance of the organic task and function of bone replacement fabrics is without doubt one of the major issues of orthopaedic and dental surgical procedure experts. Biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites convey better and tunable reactivity in addition to unique floor houses regarding their composition and mode of formation. artificial nanocrystalline apatites analogous to bone mineral could be simply ready in aqueous media and certainly one of their finest features is the life of a hydrated floor layer containing labile ionic species. Ion alternate and macromolecule adsorption techniques can simply and speedily happen as a result of robust interactions with the encompassing fluids. The ion mobility within the hydrated layer permits direct crystal-crystal or crystal-substrate bonding.The positive characterisation of those very reactive nanocrystals is key and will be finished with diversified instruments together with chemical research and spectroscopic recommendations corresponding to FTIR, Raman and reliable country NMR. The reactivity of the hydrated layer of apatite nanocrystals deals fabric scientists and scientific engineers broad probabilities for the layout of biomaterials with enhanced bioactivity utilizing unconventional processing. certainly apatitic biomaterials will be processed at low temperature which preserves their floor reactivity and organic houses. they could even be linked in numerous methods with energetic molecules and/or ions. numerous examples of use and processing of nanocrystalline apatites considering the education of tissue-engineered biomaterials, cements, ceramics, composites and coatings on steel prostheses are awarded.

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To gain a better understanding of the adsorption mechanisms on apatite nanocrystals, smaller molecules such as peptides or amino acids are often used for closer identification of possible interacting groups. It is thus generally accepted from experimental results that the alpha-carboxylate group of the amino acid is preferentially bound to the nanocrystal surface. The affinity was also found to be dependent on the apatite characteristics. For example in the case of glycine, the Physico-Chemical Properties of Nanocrystalline Apatites 43 affinity decreased as the HPO42- content decreased and as the carbonate content increased [Bennani-Ziatni 2003].

Drouet, H. Sfihia et al. porous chitosan-apatite composites using co-precipitation methods [Kong 2005, Rusu 2005]. The association of chitosan with apatite improved the biocompatibility of the material and greater cell proliferation on a composite scaffold has been reported [Kong 2005]. In our research group, protein-CaP associations have been prepared according to biomimetic processes at low temperature and in aqueous suspension. The proteins studied (casein, albumin) present an affinity for calcium phosphate surfaces.

Drouet, H. Sfihia et al. The protein adsorption ability of apatites can be used in the biomaterials field to improve the bone wound-healing processes by associating apatite (carrier) with growth factors which have been shown to be potent osteogenic inductors or with a specific protein RGD sequence (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) involved in cell attachment to favor cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Midy et al. reported a study on the adsorption and release properties of synthetic carbonated apatite (matured for 24h) analogous to bone mineral compared to the properties of well-crystallized hydroxyapatite toward basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [Midy 1998].

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