# Nanocomputers: Theoretical Models by Frank M.P.

By Frank M.P.

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**Sample text**

Classical information Information that is sufﬁcient to pick out a single basis state from a given basis, but that does not itself specify the basis. CMOS Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, the dominant process/device technology for digital electronic computing today, involving PFET and NFET ﬁeld-effect transistors, which complement each other (the PFETs conduct the high-voltage signals, and the NFETs conduct the low-voltage ones). Coding state Also coding physical state. This is the state of the coding subsystem of a given system, that is, the physical information that represents (perhaps very redundantly) the logical information that is intended to be encoded.

1 nm. One Ångstrom is the approximate radius of a hydrogen atom. Angular momentum In computational terms, this is the ratio between the number of quantum operations required to rotate an object by a given angle around a point, and the magnitude of the angle. It is quantized, so that a rotation by 180 or radians always involves an integer number of -ops (ops of magnitude size h/2), and a rotation by 1 radian involves an integer number of -ops (ops of magnitude ). Architecture An activity, namely, the functional and structural design of any complex artifact, such as a skyscraper or a computer.

Electromigration When the motion of a current through a solid material causes gradual rearrangement of the atoms of the material. A problem in today’s microcircuitry. If a wire happens to be narrower than intended at some point, electromigration can accelerate the wire’s degradation until it breaks. Note: adiabatic operation can help prevent this. Emulate Simulate exactly (with complete digital precision). Energy Energy (of all kinds) can be interpreted, at a fundamental level, as just the performing of physical computation at a certain rate in terms of quantum bit operations per second, according to the formula E = 14 hR, where h is Planck’s (unreduced) constant and R is the rate of complete bit operations [16, 18].