By Costas Azariadis
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Extra info for Intertemporal Macroeconomics
The social planning solution provides a clear candidate deﬁnition of full employment—it is the level of employment L ∗ that maximizes per capita output. In The General Theory, Keynes argued that a laissez faire economic system would not necessarily achieve full employment, and he claimed the possibility of equilibria at less than full employment as a consequence of what he called a failure of effective demand. 3 makes this notion precise in a microfounded model based on labor market search. 2 AGGREGATE DEMAND AND SUPPLY Before giving a formal deﬁnition of equilibrium, I will outline Keynes’s principle of effective demand in the context of a one-good general equilibrium model where the spot market model of the labor market is replaced by an appropriate deﬁnition of search market equilibrium.
70) implies that these resources will be allocated across industries in proportion to weights that depend on the preference parameters gi and the production elasticities ai, j . 69) implies that the volume of resources employed, L ∗ , will be allocated across industries in a similar manner. Contrast these equations with their counterparts for the Keynesian equilibrium. 71) n i=1 ai, j Yi pi i=1 rj . 72) Consumers with logarithmic preferences will set budget shares to utility weights: pi Yi = gi Z .
Search requires two inputs: (1) the time spent searching by workers and (2) the resources needed to post vacancies by ﬁrms. Most existing search models do not assume that these inputs are traded in competitive markets. Instead, they assume that vacancies and unemployed workers are matched randomly. If searching workers and vacancy posting ﬁrms take the real wage as given, the resulting general equilibrium model has fewer equations than unknowns. In search models, it is typical to assume that the match technology satisﬁes standard neoclassical properties of monotonicity, differentiability, and constant returns to scale.