Geographic Information: Organization, Access, and Use by Wade Bishop, Tony H. Grubesic

By Wade Bishop, Tony H. Grubesic

The historical past and way forward for geographic info (GI) within the context of huge info creates new avenues of outrage over its association, entry and use. during this booklet the authors discover either the history and current demanding situations dealing with the renovation of GI, targeting the jobs of librarians, archivists, info scientists, and different details execs within the construction of GI documents for its association, entry, and use.

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These lines are generally referred to as a bearing or azimuth. For GIS and mapping more generally, there are two variations of an azimuth that are worth detailing. , 2011, p. 256). Values range from 0° to 360°. However, we have already established that the only locations where an azimuth is constant would be along a meridian or an equator. Thus, a true azimuth must make use of the angular calculations with reference to a meridian to obtain an accurate measure of direction. Also relevant is the constant azimuth, or a loxodrome.

Robinson, A. , Morrison, J. , Muehrcke, P. , Kimmerling, A. , & Guptill, S. C. (1995). ). New York: Wiley. Stewart, G. R. (1975). Names on the globe. New York: Oxford University Press. Tomlinson, R. (2012). Origins of the Canada geographic information system. ArcNews. com/nevtnyg. Tuan, Y. (1977). Space and place. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. U. S. Census Bureau. (2015). Dual independent map encoding. History. html. , Sopena, M. , & Domingo, R. (2009). A palaeolithic map from 13,660 calBP: Engraved stone blocks from the Late Magdalenian in Abauntz Cave (Navarra, Spain).

For example, the difference between 110° and 115° Fahrenheit, is the same as the difference between 0° and 5° Fahrenheit. Ratio data have a clearly defined zero value. For example, attributes such as elevation and weight are ratio data. Where elevation is concerned, we know that a value of zero corresponds to sea level. We also know that an entity with zero weight is, in fact, weightless. Lastly, there are cyclic geographic data (Chrisman, 1997). Cyclic data include information on flows and their compass direction.

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