Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of by David Klahr

By David Klahr

Einstein acknowledged that "the entire of technological know-how is not anything greater than a refinement of daily thinking." David Klahr means that we now understand adequate approximately cognition--and consequently approximately daily thinking--to strengthen our realizing of medical pondering. during this ebook he units out to explain the cognitive and developmental methods that experience enabled scientists to make the discoveries that contain the physique of knowledge we name "scientific knowledge."Over the prior decade Klahr and his colleagues have performed broad laboratory experiments within which they convey discovery contexts, computer-based environments, to rouse the type of considering attribute of clinical discovery within the "real world." In making an attempt to resolve the issues posed by way of the invention projects, scan individuals (from preschoolers via college scholars, in addition to laypersons) use a number of the similar higher-order cognitive tactics utilized by working towards scientists. via this paintings Klahr integrates disparate approaches--the content-based process and the process-based approach--to current a complete version of the psychology of clinical discovery.

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Plausibility, in turn, affects the order in which hypotheses are evaluated: highly likely hypotheses tend to be tested before unlikely hypotheses (Klayman and Ha, 1987; Wason, 1968). Furthermore, participants may adopt different experimental strategies for evaluating plausible and implausible hypotheses. Searching the Experiment Space One of the most important constraints on this search is the need to produce experiments that will yield interpretable outcomes. This requires domain-general knowledge about one’s own information-processing limitations, as well as domain-specific knowledge about the pragmatic constraints of the particular discovery context.

This base includes facts about the discipline—its procedures, instrumentation, experimental paradigms, and data-analytic methods, not to mention its history, funding procedures, political implications, institutional Investigating Scientific Thinking 13 structure, and even its publication practices (see Bazerman, 1988). But these all comprise what are called in the psychological literature “strong” or “domain-specific” methods. The mental processes we are focusing on are the “weak methods”: domain-general, universal, problem-solving processes.

Latour’s knowledge of science was non-existent; his mastery of English was very poor; and he was completely unaware of the existence of the social studies of science. Apart from (or perhaps even because of) this last feature, he was thus in a classic position of the ethnographer sent to a completely foreign environment” (Latour and Woolgar, 1986, p. 273). Chapter 2 Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving It is understandable, if ironic, that “normal” science fits pretty well the description of expert problem solving, while “revolutionary” science fits the description of problem solving by novices.

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