By Lynn M. Tesser (auth.)
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Extra resources for Ethnic Cleansing and the European Union: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Security, Memory and Ethnography
To be sure, the quadratic nexus privileges structure over agency: the formal and informal social arrangements influencing or constraining human behavior rather than the actions of individuals or groups. When all elements of the quadratic nexus exist simultaneously, nationalists and populists are likely to claim potential minority return as a security threat to enhance their political position, with significant portions of the domestic public often influenced by this discourse. A minimally competitive political system is also a part of the structure, allowing democratic processes to create possibilities for at least a degree of party competition.
57 Mann’s stress on democratic ideology harmonizes with the separation regime concept: as extracted minorities were not considered part of the dominant demos/ethnos. Unacknowledged are the incentives for ethnic cleansing created through repeated international sanctioning of minority removal. 5. International relations Ethnic conflict and ethnic cleansing have been an increasing focus of international relations since the end of the Cold War. Debated is whether partition and population transfers/exchanges contribute to the resolution or exacerbation of ethnic conflict, a discussion revived with the 1990s Balkan conflicts even while human rights doctrine eclipsed minority removal in official Western policy.
Many who count themselves as expellees include those who fled in fear of advancing armies or due to local attacks on civilians. My rather conventional definitions of forced migration and expulsion may, however, be criticized for being too restrictive as well as too expansive. 82 Sub-categories include identity-based deportations, expulsions, and even genocide. Ethnic cleansing is often, though not always, undertaken with the intention of removing persons considered to form some kind of a group from a particular land area, so that this territory may no longer be associated with them and under their control.