Emigration from Europe 1815–1930 by Dudley Baines

By Dudley Baines

Why did sixty million humans go away Europe for out of the country locations among 1815 and 1930? What have been the social and financial motives and results of this mass migration? Why did a few humans to migrate and never others, and why did such a lot of emigrants go back to Europe? This brief, entire survey solutions those and different questions relating to emigration from assorted components of Europe. Written in particular for undergraduate scholars, it reports the present literature in different ecu languages, summarizes either fiscal and demographic theories, and analyzes the relation among financial swap in Europe and the emigration price.

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Irish emigration was also different in another respect. It included almost equal numbers of males and females. One reason for this pattern was the timing of Irish emigration. In the years when very large numbers of Irish were leaving- the 1840s and 1850s- the emigrants went by sailing ship. When emigrants went by steamship in the later nineteenth century, there were fewer Irish left to travel on them. But even in the later nineteenth century, there were few temporaries among Irish emigrants. There was also a high proportion of single women.

Most emigrants from Sweden and Finland, for example, had to travel via Hull and Liverpool before the creation of the Norwegian-Amerika (1913) and SwedishAmerika ( 1915) lines. The main port for emigration from Congress and Prussian Poland was Hamburg. Trieste was the main port for Ukrainians and Croats. Fiume (Rijeka) became important in 1903 when the Hungarian government, who controlled the port, encouraged Cunard to use it [Krajlic, 1985, 413]. Other important improvements were the development of railways in both the origin and destination countries, the sale of through tickets to overseas destinations, and improvements in reception arrangements [Curti and Burr, 1950, 211].

And temporary emigration between southern and northern Europe was also occurring [Gould, 1980b, 99-100]. Temporary emigration to the Americas can simply be seen as the 'American option' [Cinel, 1982, 41]. The most famous example was probably the 20,000 golondrinas, or 'swallows', who were moving annually between Italy and the River Plate before the First World War [Gould, 1980b, 93-5]. The interesting question here, is why the Argentine farmers preferred Italians to Argentines when the former demanded higher wages.

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