By D. Bushnell
This record describes the paintings played by means of Lockheed Palo Alto examine Labora tory, Palo Alto, California 94304. The paintings was once backed by means of Air strength workplace of medical study, Bolling AFB, Washington, D. C. below provide F49620-77-C-0l22 and by means of the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Air strength Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio lower than agreement F3361S-76-C-31OS. The paintings used to be accomplished below activity 2307Nl, "Basic study in habit of metal and Composite elements of Airframe Structures". The paintings used to be admini stered by way of Lt. Col. J. D. Morgan (AFOSR) and Dr. N. S. Khot (AFWAL/FIBRA). The agreement paintings used to be played among October 1977 and December 1980. The technical document used to be published through the writer in December 1981. Preface Many buildings are assembled from elements that are skinny. for instance, a stiffened plate or cylindrical panel consists of a sheet the thickness of that is small com pared to its size, breadth, and stiffener- spacing, and stiffeners the thickness of that's small in comparison to their _ heights and lengths. those assembled buildings, loaded in compression, can buckle total, that's sheet and stiffeners can cave in jointly in a normal instability mode; the sheet can buckle in the community among stiffeners; the stiffeners can cripple; and various complicated buckling interactions can happen related to neighborhood and total deformations of either sheet and stiffeners. extra complicated, built-up buildings can buckle in additional advanced and sophisticated ways.
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Extra info for Computerized buckling analysis of shells
35(b). Figure 36(b) gives load-deflection curves for computer runs in which the creep is neglected and included. If creep is neglected the predicted failure mode is nonaxisymmetric bifurcation buckling with 12 circumferential waves at a pressure of about 1810 psi. L.. 1.. 42045--1 Ring-stiffened titanium cylinder under external hydrostatic pressure with nodal points used in the BOSORS analysis indicated (from Bushnell ). Figure 35(a). 183 o I 2 3 4 Figure 35(b). 10 40 99 100 105 TIME, t (OOUfS) 125 170 270 Loading schedule for titanium ring-stiffened cylinder (from Bushnell ).
Table 2. . 980 aAxisymmetric collapse predicted in all cases. 33 Figure 33. Symmetric ultimate collapse pattern in plastic buckling of axially compressed cylindrical shells (from Horton et al. ). that grows with load and is much more significant than any unknown imperfections due to fabrication or handling errors, providing the cylinder is machined. Gellin  shows that collapse loads of axially compressed cylinders buckling in the plastic range are not as sensitive to initial axisymmetric imperfections as are collapse loads of elastic cylinders.
11 labeled OBD is typical of shallow spherical caps under uniform external pressure in which nonlinear prebuckling effects are important but failure is by nonsymmetric bifurcation buckling. A rather thick cylindrical shell under axial compression deforms axisymmetrically throughout the collapse process. This would be indicated in Fig. 11 by a primary equilibrium path similar in shape to the curve OA 'B'C but lying under it and not intersecting the column bifurcation line at all. A very thin complete spherical shell under uniform external pressure would have a primary equilibrium path that is linear in the prebifurcation range OB.