By Peter V. Hobbs
Up to date and revised, this hugely winning textual content info the elemental chemical ideas required for contemporary reports of atmospheres, oceans, and Earth and planetary platforms. This thoroughly available advent permits undergraduate and graduate scholars with little formal education in chemistry to understand such primary recommendations as chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, resolution chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. within the significant other quantity creation to Atmospheric Chemistry (also to be released in might 2000), Peter Hobbs info atmospheric chemistry itself, together with its purposes to pollution, acid rain, the ozone gap, and weather switch. jointly those books provide a great advent to atmospheric chemistry for various disciplines.
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Additional info for Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences
2 . 2 1 ) and (2 . 22) , a 2 dsu nive rse R ln a1 = (2 . 23) Hence, if the second law of thermodynamics is valid, it follows from Eqs . 20c) and (2. 23) that R a2 a1 ln- > 0 or, That is, the gas spontaneously expands . If, on the other hand , the gas spontaneously contracted , a2 < a 1 and dsu n iverse < 0, which would violate the second law. 4 The third law of thermodynamics ; absolute entropies Although thermodynamics makes no assumptions about the structure of matter, it is sometimes instructive to interpret thermodynamic re sults in terms of microscopic properties.
Thermodynamics is based on a few fundamental postulates, called the first, second, and third laws of thermodynamics. We will discuss these laws first, and then return to the subject of chemical equilibrium. 1 The first law o f thermodynamics; enthalpy In addition to the macroscopic kinetic and potential energy that a body or system as a whole may possess , it also contains internal energy due to the kinetic and potential energy of its molecules or atoms . Increases in internal kinetic energy in the form of molecular motions are mani fested as increases in the temperature of the system, while changes in the potential energy of the molecules are caused by changes in their relative configurations .
0 x 1 0 - s m into Eq . 56) gives RH = 1 1 0% . (Note : Substitution of the numerical values given in this problem into Eq. 56) gives RH = 1 1 3%. How ever, the numerical values are given to an accuracy of just two signifi cant figures. ) I f the droplet is placed in an enclosure with a relative humidity of 1 1 0% , it will be in equilibrium. However, if the droplet should evapo= = = 38 Basic physical chemistry rate very slightly , the relative humidity just above its surface would increase above 1 1 0% [see Eq.