An Overview Of Recent Developments In Nanotechnology by Meyyappan M.

By Meyyappan M.

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Li et al, Appl. Phys. 0 -1mA -5V 0 +5V HP analyzer Current Sensing AFM Four-probe station And HP parameter analyzer Chemical Functionalization C O 2H i-Pr2N Et - CO 2 DM F Cy N C N Cy O HO N O O H 2N Fc O O O N HN Fc O Fc = Highly selective reaction of primary amine with surface –COOH group Fe Functionalization of DNA C H 3 C lH N + CH3 CH3 N CH3 C N C lN+ H CH 3 ED C O C O 2H N C O O SO 3N a Cy3 image HN H 2N NH CH3 HO N O C O Sulfo-N H S A TG C C TTC C y3 O D N A probe O SO 3N a O N A TG C C TTC C y3 O TA C G G A A G G G G G G G G G G C y5 TargetD N A O HN Cy5 image TA C G G A A G G G G G G G G G G C y5 A TG C C TTC C y3 CNT DNA Sensor Using Electrochemical Detection 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ e ‰ MWNT array electrode functionalized with DNA/PNA probe as an ultrasensitive sensor for detecting the hybridization of target DNA/RNA from the sample.

Golovchenko , Harvard D. Deamer, UC Santa Cruz C GG Present A C TT G A A A Future • Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact electronics and computing, materials and manufacturing, energy, transportation…. • The field is interdisciplinary but everything starts with material science.

Motivations for selecting Single Crystalline Nanowires & Nanowalls (in Nano-scale Electronics) ™ High single crystallinity ⇒ Low defect density, grain boundary free ϖ Well-defined surface structural properties ⇒ Enhanced interfacial engineering ™ Predictable electron transport properties ⇒ Predictable device performance ™ Unique physical properties due to quantum confinement effects ⇒ Enhancement in device characteristics ™ Tunable electronic properties by doping ⇒ Enhancement in device characteristics ™ Truly bottom-up integration approach ⇒ Innovative fabrication schemes ™ Potential to revolutionize nano-scale science and technology Challenges in Nanowire Growth • Uni-directional nanowire growth; vertical or horizontal • Uniform nanowire diameter • Acceptable uniform height (± 10%) • Localized single nanowire growth • High structural integrity substrate engineering electric field directed soft template control reactor optimization substrate patterning materials characterization ⇔ ⇔ ⇔ ⇔ ⇔ ⇔ Vdd n+ p+ Vss out n+ in 3D view of NW-based CMOS inverter out Vdd in p+ Vss Challenges in Nanowire Growth • Uni-directional nanowire growth; vertical or horizontal substrate engineering electric field directed ⇔ ⇔ Understanding of the interfacial epitaxial relationship between potential substrates and nanowire structures ⇔ modeling and simulations ⇔ experiments ⇔ combinatorial approach (0001) Directional Metal Oxide Nanowires & Nanowalls Growth (Cont’) 500nm 2µm 500nm 925¡C 1D Nanowire VLS growth Nanowall VLS growth 1µm Au surface diffusion & aggregation at a node Ng et al Science 300, 1249 (2003) Nanowire-based Vertical Surround Gate FET Nanowire-based Vertical Surround Gate FET n-NWVFET p-NWVFET • Heat shock protein (HSP 60) in organisms living at high temperatures (“extremophiles”) is of interest in astrobiology • HSP 60 can be purified from cells as a double-ring structure consisting of 16-18 subunits.

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