By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This ebook experiences present wisdom at the courting among aerosols and precipitation attaining the Earth's floor. It features a record of ideas which can aid to farther develop wisdom during this area.
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Additional resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
1991; Pandis et al. 1994). Evaporating clouds also release sulphate particles that are somewhat larger than non-cloud processed aerosol because of the additional material deposited onto them in clouds (Radke and Hobbs 1969; Easter and Hobbs 1974; Hegg et al. 1980; Hegg and Hobbs 1981; Hoppel et al. 1986; Birmili et al. 1999; Feingold and Kriedenweis 2002). It has been estimated that $80% of sulphate mass globally is formed in the aqueous phase, and the remainder from the gas phase. As expected from the Kohler ¨ curves, larger sulphate particles serve more efficiently as CCN (Hegg 1985; Leaitch et al.
Because the aerosol contributing to IN are large and large aerosol generally decrease with height (Georgi and Kleinjung 1968; DeMott et al. 2003b), we expect that IN concentrations generally decrease with height as well. 2 Principles of Cloud and Precipitation Formation 31 One should not therefore be surprised that many observations of ice particle concentrations do not show a good correlation with temperature (Gultepe et al. 2001; Field et al. 2005). Gultepe et al. (2001), for example, compiled data from the glaciated regions of stratus clouds for a number of field campaigns and found that ice crystals smaller than 1000 mm diameter do not show a good correlation with temperature and that the concentrations of these smaller ice particles varied up to three orders of magnitude for a given temperature (Fig.
6). For example, the concentration of CCN in the continental air mass over the Azores, depicted in Fig. 6, is about $300 cmÀ3 at 1% supersaturation, while in the marine air mass over Florida it is $100 cmÀ3, and in clean Arctic air it is only $30 cmÀ3. 1. The very low ratio of CCN to CN in continental air is attributable to the large number of very small particles, which are not activated at low supersaturations. Concentrations of CCN over land decline by about a factor of five between the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere (Squires and Twomey 1966; Hoppel et al.