Advanced Nanomaterials, Two Volume Edition by Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide

By Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide

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In this instance, the minority PB block acts as a positive-tone resist due to its vulnerability to ozone chemical attack. The resulting spherical pores in the film provided less RIE resistance than the continuous PS matrix, thus creating a periodic array of 20 nm holes spaced 40 nm apart on a silicon nitride substrate. 10c, the PB block was stained with osmium tetroxide vapor, which caused the PB block to exhibit a greater etch resistance than the PS block. In this case, the PB block acts like a negative-tone resist, resulting in removal of the PS matrix after RIE with CF4.

X-ray lithography requires the extremely high power of synchrotron sources, or electron storage rings, which are found in only a handful of locations around the world. Both, therefore, have proven to be impractical in a production setting. It seems that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation sources can carry the lithography community 17 18 1 Phase-Selective Chemistry in Block Copolymer Systems down to 20 nm structures, but beyond that the semiconductor industry sees a need for innovative patterning strategies [79].

1 Block Copolymers as Useful Nanomaterials advantage to anionic polymerization is the limited range of monomers available for synthesis. Although the standard styrenes, methacrylates, butadiene, isoprene, ethylene oxide, vinylpyridines, and amino acids can all be synthesized using this technique, monomers with reactive functional groups cannot be used because they will interfere with the anionic chain end. Such monomers must therefore be protected before synthesis and then later deprotected. In some cases, such as the polymerization of acrylates, the reactions must be carried out at very low temperatures (−78 °C) in order to avoid terminating side reactions such as intrachain cyclization or “backbiting”, caused by the reaction of the anionic center with a carbonyl group on the monomer.

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