A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the by Daniela Giannetti, Bernard Grofman

By Daniela Giannetti, Bernard Grofman

In the early Nineteen Nineties, significant electoral reforms happened in either Italy and Japan; each one changed a kind of “proportional illustration” (in which electorate solid a poll for a celebration record) with a “mixed member” method (in which citizens solid ballots for person applicants and social gathering lists). The reforms have been enacted by way of political elites within the context of divisions in the dominant celebration, altering styles of occasion aid, and celebration splits, in efforts to keep energy whereas responding to fees of corruption, clientelism, and absence of responsibility. The studies of either nations supply a laboratory during which to enquire the results and implications of the reforms, and, extra largely to investigate voter habit within the context of institutional switch. The advent offers an outline of post-WWII politics and electoral reform in Italy and Japan. In all the next 4 chapters, experts in Italian and eastern electoral politics are teamed as much as assessment information either earlier than and after the reforms. inside this comparative framework, the authors discover such subject matters as alterations in celebration festival, candidate choice mechanisms, and intra-party politics. The concluding bankruptcy considers the longer-term consequences—both expected and unanticipated—of the reforms. regardless of superficially comparable stipulations, the results within the international locations have been dramatically varied: in Japan, the hot method has taken carry, with minor changes, whereas in Italy, there has been a reversion to a proportional illustration method. because the essays during this quantity exhibit, to appreciate why comparable reforms had such varied results within the nations we needs to learn how electoral structures are embedded in broader institutional and social preparations, and look at the complicated interaction of political geography, political background, and the rational calculations of political actors.

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Additional info for A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan

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12 It is important to note that in the 2006 and 2008 national elections, parties adjusted to the same rules in very different ways. 2. Two main catch-all blocs faced the 2006 elections, showing continuity with the trend started in 1996 under the previous electoral rules. Larger parties took advantage of the complicated system of thresholds established in the 2005 electoral law because they were able to attract minor parties joining the pre-electoral cartel. Actually, to gain seats, smaller parties have to pass a lower threshold if they join PECs (2% of the total votes rather than 4%).

However, the year 1964 marks the start of a period of center-left DC-PSI coalitions (Verzichelli and Cotta 2000), while in 1976 the unprecedented electoral success of the PCI allowed the DC to form minority governments (with the external support of the PCI). In 1987, the DC finally lost its status as dominant party. The trend in electoral and legislative party dominance can be shown using the effective number of parties (ENP). 1 shows that from 1948 to 1976 the ENP in Italy was largely constant, approximately around four.

Undoubtedly, the methodology used to identify regional contextual effects is very important; however, our discussion here is limited to reviewing previous research on the nature and importance of regional voting in Italy and Japan. Political Regions in Italy One method of evaluating the degree to which an electoral system is regionalized is to see how far the aggregate vote in each region identified is different from that observed at the national level. From this perspective, Italy is one of the most regionalized political systems in Europe (Caramani 2004, 58–70).

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